Methodology

Methodology

All gambling products do not have the same risk potential. Gambling products are characterized by situational parameters realized in observable scales that combined, result in more or less distinct risk potential.

 

The scales are standardized between 0 (of no importance) and 10 (of very great importance). All scales are symmetric.

 

The following ten dimensions (parameters) provided a useful framework to examine the risk potential of different gambling products:[1]

 

1.    Event frequency

 

Definition: Unit of time between stake, gambling result and next stake opportunity.

 

Scale

> 6 days

> 24 hrs

≤ 6 days

> 1 hr

≤ 24 hrs

> 10 min

≤ 1 hr

> 3 min

≤ 10 min

> 1 min

≤ 3 min

> 15 sec

≤ 1 min

> 5 sec

≤ 15 sec

≤ 5 sec

0

1.25

2.5

3.75

5

6.25

7.5

8.75

10

 

 

2.    Interval of payback

 

Definition: Period of time between gambling result and notification of payment or actual receipt of payment.

 

Scale

> 6 days

> 24 hrs

≤ 6 days

> 1 hr

≤ 24 hrs

> 10 min

≤ 1 hr

> 3 min

≤ 10 min

> 1 min

≤ 3 min

> 15 sec

≤ 1 min

> 5 sec

≤ 15 sec

≤ 5 sec

0

1.25

2.5

3.75

5

6.25

7.5

8.75

10

 

 

3.    Jackpot

 

Definition: An extraordinary top prize typically in the form of a large amount of money formed by the accumulation of previous bets.

 

Scale

non existent

≥ 0 $

< 100 $

≥ 100 $

< 1.000 $

≥ 1.000 $

< 10.000 $

≥ 10.000 $

< 50.000 $

≥ 50.000 $

< 100.000 $

≥ 100.000 $

< 1 Mio. $

≥ 1 Mio. $

0

1.25

2.5

4

6

7.5

8.75

10

 

 

4.    Continuity of playing

 

Definition: Period of time during which it is possible to gamble without interruption.

 

Scale

≤ 5 min

of continuous gambling

> 5 min

≤ 30 min

of continuous gambling

> 30 min

≤ 1 hour

of continuous gambling

> 1 hour

≤ 3 hrs

of continuous gambling

> 3 hrs

of continuous gambling

0

2.5

5

7.5

10

 

 

5.    Chance of winning a profit

 

Definition: The probability of realizing a profit with each game.

 

Scale

0%

> 0 %

≤ 0,1 %

> 0,1 %

≤ 0,5 %

> 0,5 %

≤ 1 %

> 1 %

≤ 5 %

> 5 %

≤ 10 %

> 10 %

≤ 25

> 25%

0

1,25

2.5

4

6

7.5

8,75

10

 

 

6.    Availability

 

Definition: Possibility of accessing gambling opportunities.

 

Scale

Gambling opportunities

within a radius of > 100 km

Gambling opportunities

within a radius from

> 25 km  to 
≤  100 km

Gambling opportunities

within a radius from

> 10 km to 
≤  25 km

Gambling opportunities

within a radius from

> 1 km  to 
≤  10 km

Gambling opportunities

within a radius of

≤  1 km

Gambling opportunities

at home / workplace

0

2.5

4

6

7.5

10

 

 

7.    Multiple playing-/stake opportunities

 

Definition: Opportunity to play several stakes at the same time (e.g. betting on several roulette numbers) or to take part in several gambling opportunities at the same time (e.g. playing different slot-machines at the same time or playing different online-poker-tables on different screens at the same time).

 

Scale

no multiple playing opportunity
and no multiple stake opportunity

multiple playing opportunities or multiple stake opportunities

multiple playing opportunities and multiple stake opportunities

0

5

10

 

 

8.    Variable stake amount

 

Definition: Extent to which gamblers can choose or modify their stake amounts while playing.

 

Scale

no variable (= fixed)
stake amount

variable stake,

limited stake amount

variable stake,

unlimited stake amount

0

5

10

 

 

9.    Sensory product design

 

Definition: Auditory and visual effects.

 

Scale

non-existent

auditory or visual effects exist

auditory and visual effects exist

0

5

10

 

 

10.  Near wins

 

Definition: Results when a gambler supposes to almost win (to miss the profit narrowly; a near win).

 

Scale

non-existent

un-intentionally created, occurring by chance

intentionally created by supplier/ producer,
occurring more frequently than random

0

5

10

 

Some dimensions are more important than others in increasing the risk potential of the gambling product. Therefore weights are assigned for each parameter regarding their risk potential. The weights are standardized between 0 (of no importance) and 10 (of very great importance). 

 

The overall risk potential of a gambling product is obtained by multiplying the weight of each dimension by the score on that dimension and adding up the weighted scores of all ten dimensions. Thus the range ASTERIG© is 0-620, where the maximum is obtained by multiplying the resulting individual points of each dimension (which always range from 0-10) by the weight of those dimensions (which could also range theoretically from 0-10, but which are fixed by the experts currently between 4-8). Based on the particular scales and on the general weights of dimensions, the result is a number of points with a maximum of 620 points = 62 (sum of the weights) x 10 (maximum scale), which can be normalized to a maximum score[2] of maximum 10 by dividing by 62 (i.e., 620: 62)[3]:


Risk potential criteria

weights

scales

range of value[4]

Event frequency

8

0 - 10

0 - 80

Interval of payback

6

0 - 10

0 - 60

Jackpot

5

0 - 10

0 - 50

Continuity of playing

8

0 - 10

0 - 80

Chance of winning a profit

6

0 - 10

0 - 60

Availability

7

0 - 10

0 - 70

Multiple playing-/stake opportunities

6

0 - 10

0 - 60

Variable stake amount

6

0 - 10

0 - 60

Sensory product design

4

0 - 10

0 - 40

Near wins

6

0 - 10

0 - 60

Totals

62

0 - 10

0 - 620

 

The different meanings of dimensions of the risk potential of each gambling product can be visualized by a scorecard.[5]

If the total points are classified into five categories of equal amplitude, the results can be seen to map five categories of risk:

 

Result

Score

Risk category

Risk potential

1 - 124

> 0  -  ≤ 2

A

lowest

125 - 248

> 2  -  ≤ 4

B

low

249 – 372

> 4  - ≤ 6

C

moderate

373 - 496

> 6  -  ≤ 8

D

high

497 - 620

> 8  -  ≤ 10

E

highest




[1] Blanco, Carlos; Blaszczynski, Alex; Clement, Reiner; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Hodgins, David C.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Ibanez, Angela; Martins, Silvia S.; Moersen, Chantal; Molinaro, Sabrina; Parke, Adrian ; Peren, Franz W.; Petry, Nancy M., and Wardle, Heather: Assessment Tool to Measure and evaluate the risk potential of gambling products - ASTERIG. In: The Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, Vol. 7, No 1 (2013).

[2] To use scores respectively a scorecard is recommended because one factor (the weights) of the two factors is fixed. The weights do not vary from case to case. A score from maximum 10 means that the risk potential of addiction would be reached in maximum in all dimensions.

[3] By dividing the total points – here at the maximum = 620 points – through 62 (= sum of the fix weights) the total scores are getting normalized into a range between 0-10.

[4] Weights multiply with the minimum/maximum values of the scales.

[5] Scorecards are suitable for quantitative assessments during analysis of potentials and risks, for the estimation of product- and performance-ideas and further problems. Scorecards are suited for the quantitative evaluation of potential and risk analyses to assess product and service ideas and many other factors.